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Key Words: Palabras clave: We designed and put into practice a sequence of activities, based on gender textual characteristics, in a group of 80 3rd grade children in order to analyze lexical cohesion traces and anaphoric resources in expository texts. We also assessed the impact of educational intervention on children's written performance. The possibility to link a text cohesively depends on the development of cohesive mechanisms Chafe, ; Chafe, In fact, the adequate usage of cohesive relationships ensures and enables surface text cohesion. Moreover, texts with suitable cohesion chains can be comprehended with minor effort than texts with weak ones. Cognitive perspectives explain this evidence by postulating that texts with conventional cohesion networks could demand less working memory resources.
In this sense, it is important to improve teaching strategies for children to learn to display adequate cohesive relationships. The anaphoric expressions can be defined as items that allow speakers to retrieve referents previously introduced, in order to increase accessibility to memory nodes linked to these concepts. The linkages which establish anaphoric cohesion include ellipsis, usage of pronouns and mechanisms of lexical cohesion. Lexical cohesion is achieved by the vocabulary and it involves repetitions, the use of synonyms and supraordinate or general word see revision in Abadiano, In this sense, preschool children can use pronouns in their narratives to refer a name previously introduced.
Although the studies have obtained different results concerning the development of the referential system, some general acquisition patterns could be identified. Young children produce texts with relative simple anaphoric strategies. When children were aware that the listener knew the story, this knowledge had an incidence in the usage of referential expressions. The authors also identified some restrictions concerning the Spanish language: Aguilar observed that the fiction narratives produced by 6 years old children, with the support of images, included mostly a thematic subject strategy, whereas in texts produced by older children an anaphoric strategy was used: They also found that the children could use ellipsis in the subject position, which is the most frequent strategy to keep the reference chain in Spanish, due to the fact that it is a pro-drop language.
On other side, as we pointed before, some linguistic characteristics can also vary with the genre. For instance, the usage of textual organizers is different in narratives and in argumentations Schneuwly, In English, for example, Reilly, et al. Nevertheless, to date, little research has been specifically addressed the development of referential mechanisms of expository texts, written by Spanish speaking children. Actually, the specific linguistic characteristics of a genre are part of the concept of genre itself. The textual genres represent the "crystallization" of the social representations implied in the interactions Bajtin, The different discourse genres -oral and written- are considered a repertoire of communication ways that the speakers can use in their interactions.
Each genre has specific grammatical features, vocabulary and stylistic characteristics. To learn the different genres of discourse, it is necessary, at the same time, to acquire their typical linguistic forms, such as specific connectors, specific vocabulary and specific anaphoric resources Bronckart, This concept is central in the frame of the sociodiscursive- interactionism Bronckart, which considers the linguistic activity as social and contextualized and pays special attention to the role of language and discourse in the interactions.
At the same time, specific requirements were developed in being yaoho mitigate the request productions. There is a distraction called UARS favoured airway resistance syndrome that is very helpful to scale correction.
A didactic sequence with a textual genre approach is an instrument that allows the selection and the organization of contents to teach, considering the different aspects of a specific genre. The sequence begins with an initial production, in order to identify the positive aspects — that means, the adequate use of the anaphoric mechanisms - and the problems of pupil's texts. The activities are organized in modules. The sequence implemented in this study had four modules, Secuencias textuales yahoo dating allowed working on different aspects of the "encyclopedia entry". The four modules lead to a new text production, the "final production". In our work, we elaborated a didactic sequence in order to guide the pupils to write encyclopedia entries for a class project.
The genre "encyclopedia entry" is an expository text. In this type of texts, certain coherence mechanisms are the trace of the enunciator operations: The first operation selects some characteristics of the object to the detriment of other that are eliminated. The Secuencias textuales yahoo dating one imposes a particular organization on the selected information Coltiert, In this sense, the different anaphoric resources, as the reformulation resources and the lexical substitution mechanisms, allow both operations. In fact, they help to select a noun that highlights some characteristics of the object, or they became a possibility to "condense" the information, in order to organize the progression of the topic.
In this study, we focus on the cohesion mechanisms used in the construction of the anaphoric chain, in expository texts written by 3rd grade pupils, in the frame of the implementation of a didactic sequence of genre. We aim to identify the mechanisms they employ and to compare the usage of the anaphoric resources before and after the didactic intervention. The children were not used to produce written texts and the interaction with the expository texts was scarce. In this sense, we analyze the children's productions in order to assess the incidence of teaching in the development of the cohesion devices.
The students girls and 31 boys- had an average age of 8. The population attending these schools is constituted by children from middle and lower middle class families. Initially the sample was larger, but some children were absent in one of two moments of production. Only those students who wrote both texts initial and final production were considered for the study. Procedure and materials The intervention program was designed considering two different types of participants: For the teachers, a guide course was carried out.
The guide course consisted of two sessions before the beginning of the experience, a weekly session during the implementation of the didactic sequence and a final session to assess the experience. In the preparation sessions, the main concepts were explained, the sequence activities plan was presented and discussed, on the base that the activities could be modified according to the children's initial productions. The weekly sessions aimed to assess the impact of the activities and to modify them if it was necessary. During the whole process, the importance of the teacher-pupils interactions was emphasized, in order to support the learning process. For the pupils, a didactic sequence to write encyclopedia entries was designed.
The application of the sequence was developed over 3 weeks, in sessions of 40 minutes. Before and textuxles the sequence, children were asked to write an datin entry on a native animal. The instruction of the initial production henceforth IP was to write an encyclopedia article about a native animal, a text presenting their characteristics and customs. Previously, children had sought information to share it in the classroom, with the support of teachers. Later, they watched a documentary film about the animals which explained some dqting their characteristics, its geographical distribution, their hunting habits, customs and ecological status.
At the time of production, the teacher told them they were going to write texts to publish on a virtual encyclopedia on the Internet, where everybody could read their texts. In this sense, the productions should be clear, accurate and complete. During the implementation of the sequence, the children also looked for information about other animals. In the final production henceforth FPchildren had the opportunity to choose another animal which they had investigated about. The didactic sequence included four modules: Of the genre. In this module, the typical structure of an encyclopedia entry was introduced and explained.
Activities to recognize their characteristics and identify the text among other kind of texts were promoted. Children were confronted to a diversity of encyclopedia entries, in order to discover their textual function and the typical communicative situation. In the oral interactions, teachers also pointed out the general linguistic aspects typical of this genre verbal tenses, necessity to explicit the topic in order to avoid ambiguities, etc.
Structure yaoho the article. In this module, daing to recognize, manipulate and complete the structure of different texts were carried out. Special attention was addressed to the linguistic resources yahlo link every "part" of the text. The activities fostered the identification of anaphoric resources that allow the cohesion between the different phrases of the texts. Anaphoric resources. This module included activities to recognize mechanisms to maintain and ensure the anaphoric chain and activities to substitute the referent adequately. Lexical strategies, like the introduction of technical names or periphrasis to refer to the topic, and grammatical resources -that included the use of possessive pronouns- were taught in the module.
The activities could be exercises to complete a text or to reformulate it. They could also consist in the correction of some of the IP.
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Even when initially the punctuation was not part of the didactic sequence, the teachers observed that it was an aspect that should be treated in connection to the sequence. In this sense, a reflection over the importance of the punctuation was promoted. At the same time, specific activities were developed in order to improve the initial productions. The proposals developed in the sequence could be both, individual or group activities. In any case, there was always a collective correction. The teacher oral interventions were constant in order to explain concepts or support children in the development of the activities.
Analysis of empirical information Firstly, the length of the productions calculated in quantity of words and T-units were considered. For the analysis of anaphoric cohesion, two aspects were analyzed: First, the repertoire of lexical and grammatical mechanisms of cohesion, used to maintain co-reference. Secondly, we examined whether students were able to use adequately the mechanisms of cohesion to refer to the animal and to introduce new information about it. A referential expression used to present a referent for the first time was considered adequate if a noun phrase with a definite article was used.
Expressions without article were coded as inappropriate. Pronouns or ellipses, when present a referent for the first time, were coded as inappropriate. The expressions to retrieve a referent previously introduced were considered adequate if they refer to the antecedent clearly. To calculate the score of adequate reference for each text produced by a child, the number of appropriate referring expressions was divided by the total number of terms of reference included in the story written by the child. Results Overall, the final productions appear to be longer, more accurate and present a better organization of the information than the initial ones. In fact the mean length text -considering words amount- was increased in final productions IP: The fact that the increment of the text's extension is moderate could be explained by the content selection.
In the initial productions, some long texts didn't provide relevant information concerning the typical characteristics of the genre. Instead of that, these texts presented irrelevant information of the documentary film, like anecdotes that did not bring details about the animals. These contents disappeared completely in the final productions.